A cornerstone of effective family business governance is developing strong boards of directors. 与凯时k66在线首页业绩和持续性相关的一个董事会因素是外部独立董事的增加. Another factor that has not received as much attention, is the importance of developing family members into strong directors, capable of complementing the independent outside directors. 这些“控股家族所有者”和“非控股家族成员”在凯时k66在线首页的成功和延续中发挥了关键作用.

A natural first phase in family business governance is to create a family-only board. These initial boards are usually comprised of family-member owners working in the business. 这种家族董事会往往会演变成包括在企业工作的年轻一代家族成员,他们可能还没有所有权. 通常, 这一阶段的管理家族成员(包括所有者和非所有者)狭隘地关注凯时k66在线首页当前产品和运营的增长和运营,外部影响有限.


As the business develops further into the second and third generation, 越来越多的外部影响产生了更大的影响. 当发生转换, 公司治理通常是从家族董事会演变而来的, 咨询委员会, to a fiduciary board with family members as the majority, and then to a fiduciary board with non-family members as the majority (see the figure 1). Each stage represents a meaningful change from the previous one.



作为一个例子, 欧文座椅公司已经从100多年前成立时的一个家族董事会发展到今天的受托董事会,有四个家族成员(两个在公司内部,两个在公司外部)和四个独立的外部董事会成员. This blend of board members has been effectively governing Irwin for the past several years. The two family members in the business have a deep understanding of the business, 而在业务之外的两位家族成员和在其他组织工作的独立董事会成员则带来了独特的视角. 在最近的一次评估中, there were several contributions the board members and executives cited as valuable:

  • 充当一个共鸣板
  • Creating a level of accountability, particularly to the annual plan
  • 协助银行和金融机构的工作
  • 就遗产规划事宜提供指导
  • 帮助建立股东关系
  • Giving encouragement and support, as well as challenging certain initiatives
  • Providing in-depth support when critical events occur, most recently the turn-around of one division

管理家族成员和受托董事会的独立董事都有一些相似的角色和责任, 包括:

  • 选择和撤换公司官员
  • 设置官补偿
  • 宣布股息
  • Holding management accountable for its performance

However, many family boards, like Irwin, take on more expansive roles, 包括:

  • 审查和批准预算
  • 制定长期战略方向
  • Serving on committees that oversee the audit and compensation process
  • 协助制定政策
  • Approving significant capital expenditures, including acquisitions


最终, 高性能板的关键, 无论是顾问还是受托人, 是谁坐在董事会桌旁. 与所服务的凯时k66在线首页相关的技能和经验的补充组合已被证明是持续的凯时k66在线首页成功的一个强有力的指标. While having specific industry or functional experience is important, 同样重要的是,加入具有不同行业或组织经验和各种功能专业知识的成员, 包括金融, 市场营销, 销售, 操作, 人力资源和信息技术.

通过对家族成员和独立董事会成员的适当选择,所有董事会成员的作用都得到了极大的提升. 不太可能所有的家族董事, 尤其是那些没有工作的人, will possess the same level of skills and experience that independent directors bring to the table. An equally important attribute for board effectiveness is a profound understanding of the owning family. 因此, 最好是为家族董事设立资格和培训,以确保他们能够在有独立董事的董事会中有效运作.




代表家族股东: Able to effectively carry out the responsibilities a director has to all shareholders; not only a family branch.高级领导业绩: Successfully performed at senior management/leadership positions (CEO, COO, CFO, EVP, VP, 等.).
完整性: Acts discreetly with confidential data; a trusted and respected member of the family.董事会经验: 曾在营利性和非营利机构的董事会任职.
财务智慧: 对财务报表有较强的理解能力,并有运用数字来推动决策的分析经验.行业经验: 曾在住宅和商业项目的施工过程中工作或具有良好的理解.
业务的理解: 具有良好的商业判断经验, 对行业有基本的了解, 竞争对手, 客户, 产品 & service offerings, the business model, company strategies and key metrics.在职或最近退休: A thirst for learning and still engaged to some level in the business world, either working full or part-time and/or serving as a consultant/advisor or board member.
家庭的敏感性: Sensitive to the nature of the family dynamics, and knowledge of family issues and idiosyncrasies. Open to concerns or ideas expressed by other family members.凯时k66在线首页的理解: Familiarity with the culture and unique complexities of a closely-held family business.
领导及外部经历: 在之前的工作和/或外部经验中取得的成就,能带来在科学等领域的观点, 金融, legal, 市场营销, 或全球发展.战斗伤疤: Struggled through difficult times leading a business through a severe downturn, 高层次的增长, 或行业混乱.
战略思想: Able to focus more on strategic issue resolution than tactical details.连续经历: 涉及业务的代际转移.
外交技巧: Possess an ability to assertively disagree with enough forcefulness to be heard, 没有攻击, 促进引人入胜的意见交流.声誉: Well-respected in given industry and community; matches up with Company’s values: humility, 仆人领导, 基于事实的决策, 等.
沟通技巧: Possess an ability to clearly articulate concepts and events, an intuitive understanding of timing and frequency of communication to maximize trust & 信心.适应性强: 能够迅速调整战略思维,以适应不断变化的市场动态,并在条件要求变化时迅速行动.


强大的凯时k66在线首页董事会有意识地为家族成员和外部董事会成员制定了明确的标准. To raise the bar on board member skills it is realistic to apply more demanding “business experience” qualifications for outside independent board members; and more demanding “family dynamics experience” qualifications for family members. 创建这些资格,然后将其应用于挑选董事会成员的过程,大大增加了长期连续性的可能性.

发展起来,我.病房里,J. & 布伦·德·庞泰. (2011). 建立一个成功的凯时k66在线首页董事会. 纽约. 帕尔格雷夫麦克米伦.