一个活跃的董事会, 顾问或受托人, that includes independent outside directors sets the optimal governance oversight tone in a family business. FBCG studies have shown that the highest-performing family firms tend to have a fiduciary board with the majority of board members as independent outsiders versus family members.  

那么,问题是如何最好地创建这样一个董事会. 大多数凯时k66在线首页的董事会,只要做得对,就已经演变成一种理想的形式, 而不是一个人开始. 这是, 它们从“纸”板——被描述为只存在于纸上的板——过渡过来, 包括年度会议纪要和所需的法律文件——提交给一个仅限家庭成员的董事会, 咨询委员会, 以家庭成员为多数的受托人委员会, 以非家族成员为多数的受托人委员会(见下图). 每个阶段都代表着与前一个阶段相比的有意义的变化.


Family businesses that evolve their board structures to meet the growing needs of the family and business gain greater understanding and appreciation for complexities of the governance process as well as for how best to harness the board with regard to innovation and other key areas. 超出了董事会的形式, 其他几个维度也需要考虑,比如大小, 作文, 旋转, 退休和评价.


FBCG对360家凯时k66在线首页董事会的调查显示,董事会成员的平均规模为6人, 5到9个是最理想的.  While data suggest that boards with a majority of non-family board members will increase the probability of greater performance, the key driver of success is a combination of highly qualified family and non-family board members representing complementary experience, 技能, 和观点.

从家庭董事会开始, 格兰杰和同事, 一家垃圾和能源公司, 前两代稳步推进. 然而, 随着业务需求的增长, 机会变得更加复杂, 资本需求增加, 很明显,这家人会从外界的观点中受益.

经过关于外部董事价值的深入教育, 一位家族成员同意退出董事会, 认识到这是为了家庭和企业的集体利益.  Two other family members resigned later as they became believers in the blended family/independents governance model. 

Along with enduring some family pain, it took an open mindset to promote the board’s evolution. 关于治理, 一些家族可能世代都有外部董事会成员, 而其他人只是逐渐习惯了这个想法.

来实现, the Grangers used a task force to create an effective blend of family and non-family board members. It used strict qualification criteria including deep experience/knowledge of the solid waste and renewable energy industries to identify independent director candidates. Concurrently, the task force applied a less stringent set of criteria to assess family members. Today the Granger family is happy to have a board with four family members and three outside directors, 从董事会成员的互补观点中获益.


Rotation and replacement of board directors through a combination of term limits and mandated retirement ensures a steady flow of fresh ideas 和观点, 防止董事会陷入停滞. 另外, agreed-upon terms of office induce the chair or owning family to review director performance periodically. 如果有任期限制, the downside is that they may motivate effective directors to leave before management or owners want them to.

组建董事会的目标应该是最大化新鲜度和稳定性. 一方面,董事会应该保持相关性,并对公司不断变化的需求作出反应. 另一方面, board structure should also afford directors an opportunity to gain a long-term perspective on the business and in-depth knowledge of its owners’ values, 气质, 和目标.

当贝勒杨公司的家族董事会成员, 美国中西部的一家供热和制冷产品和服务提供商, 听说两名长期担任独立董事的董事决定不再续任, they were energized to begin a search process for new members with a “non-status quo” approach to governance. 很快,正如人们所希望的那样,两位视角新颖且互补的董事找到了他.

规定董事会成员的强制退休年龄,有利有弊. 从好的方面来看, 强制退休年龄有利于更资深的董事会成员顺利过渡. 另一方面, because higher age is not synonymous with lower involvement or insight — and may actually relate to deeper knowledge of the company and its industry — forced retirement may result in the loss of highly valuable directors.

An innovative option is to find a supporting role for an aging yet strongly contributing board member. 例如, 而不是让主席退休, 该成员可以被任命为名誉主席, acting as a senior ambassador for the company while visiting the business and attending high-profile industry events.


A robust board-evaluation process is a must to ensure a well-functioning, active, and involved board. Systematic evaluation uncovers and addresses issues related to board function and individual director contributions. Some families have standardized board evaluation processes, while others take a more casual approach.

对董事的评估应考虑顾问支付持续费用的事实, 比如律师和会计师, 不被普遍认为是纯粹独立的董事会成员吗.  付费顾问赚取持续的服务费, whereas other outside advisors working only on board governance activity should be able to discuss important topics from a fully unbiased position.

类似的, 一些凯时k66在线首页会邀请凯时k66在线首页顾问参加董事会, 允许他们观察过程并提供输入-又是这里, 评估顾问的价值是很重要的. Another creative technique to gain expertise is to have an attorney or accountant serve as an officer. 因为公司的管理人员不必是董事会成员, some family firms have elected an attorney as secretary or an outside accountant as treasurer, 再次仔细评估他们的贡献.

保密对我们来说很重要. 所有情况下, anecdotes and examples cited by name are publicly available cases or have been approved for use by the family business described. 其他的都是基于我们客户经验的假设、组合或混合.

这篇文章是根据那本书改编的 凯时k66在线首页的创新:世代成功 由帕尔格雷夫·麦克米伦出版,2015年.