太频繁, 伟大的企业拥有者认为,家庭和企业代表着一个连续统一体的两端,他们必须从中做出选择. 詹姆斯·柯林斯和杰里·波拉斯在他们的开创性著作中如是说, 《凯时k66首页在线》(哈珀), 1994), family business owners are often tortured by the “tyranny of the 要么/or” when they should “embrace the genius of both/and” in family business.

作为企业的核心关注点(赢、利润等).)不同于家庭的核心功能(养育、传统等.), 许多人认为,其中一个的成功必须以牺牲另一个为代价,这并不令人惊讶. The assumption is 要么 we make our choices and set priorities based only on the needs of the business or we focus on the needs of the family. 例如, 你是否听人说过,你必须在家庭管理和专业管理之间做出选择? 这样的选择意味着家庭成员不可能是专业的.

非此即彼的方法的危险在于,所有者制定的政策最终会损害家族和企业. One large family business I knew ceased to exist because the founder decreed that theirs was a “family first” business and any family member was entitled to a senior management job — irrespective of their actual qualifications. 其结果是,一个组织被一个无效的管理结构负担过重,不仅效率低下,而且最终无能为力. 到了第三代, there was so much conflict in vision and lack of initiative from senior management that the business lost its ability to compete in the industry. 进一步, 由于生意萧条带来的压力,这个家庭一片混乱,许多关系都被破坏到了无法修复的地步.

相反的方法也可能导致失败. Another large family business I knew developed a preference for “professional management” that became a barrier to family members even being considered for roles of leadership in the company. 随着越来越多的非家族高管控制了高级管理层, they systematically shut-out family members who aspired to careers in the business to ensure “family concerns” could in no way cloud business decisions. 结果, 到第五代, was a distant and disaffected group of family owners who did not understand the businesses they were in and therefore did not appreciate the need to reinvest capital for future growth. 所有权的冲突导致了董事会的分裂和战略的瘫痪,最终迫使公司出售.

这两个例子强调的是平衡的需要, 同时考虑到企业和家庭的需要,以确保两者的最佳运作. 决定公司的领导权应该被留下 要么 对家庭 or 对于职业经理人来说,这是一种人为的强迫选择. 进一步, 它使企业利益与家族利益分离,反之亦然, 在理想的情况下, 两者应该紧密结合. The business should be managed by the strongest possible cadre of managers who have a deep understanding and appreciation of the family’s priorities for the business.

The best family business executives understand that a well-informed and engaged shareholder group is among the greatest competitive advantages they have as a company. 同样的, 家族需要认识到,当合格的领导人掌舵时,他们作为企业主的利益才能得到最好的服务, 在适当情况下与家庭领导人合作. 虽然不是成功的必要条件, the involvement of qualified family members in leadership of the enterprise can help to ensure that the business has a good ongoing appreciation for the values and concerns of the family, 这家人对推动企业发展的需求有着良好的“内部”理解.

并行规划过程, 最初由兰德尔·卡洛克和约翰·沃德在“家庭和企业的战略规划”(帕尔格雷夫)中提出, 2001), 将这两种强大的力量联系起来,认清凯时k66在线首页的真正潜力. 通过帮助家族和管理层创建一个支持家族利益和企业潜力的商业战略, 这将产生强大的协同作用.

然而,在一个静态图表中描述一个成功的凯时k66在线首页计划的所有复杂性是不可能的, 图1显示了家族和企业之间的战略规划, 所有者和管理层可以产生远远超出正常受托责任范围的相互承诺和一致. Parallel planning for the family and the business will ensure that the strategic direction of the business is aligned with the overall goals of the family. When a family has a long-range vision for itself as owners of a business that is strategically positioned to support its goals for generations to come, 耐心资本更容易用于发展和培育业务.

这个模型的优势(图1)在于四个战略原则的应用:

1. 家庭价值观和经营理念是战略规划的基础. 家庭成员必须首先澄清共同的信仰, 经验和遗产使他们在凯时k66在线首页的所有权和管理上团结起来. 与并行规划, these values serve as the underpinning of the business culture in which the company operates and define how the family will work to support the business’ future success.

2. 战略思维适用于企业和家庭. The opportunities that a business pursues must be appropriate to the strengths of the enterprise and in keeping with the vision of the owning family. Strategic planning ensures ongoing communication between the family and the business so that the leaders of the enterprise and the family align the family’s expectations with the needs of the business. 就像企业必须积极地计划增长一样, 随着家庭的扩大, 它还必须计划如何以“有效所有者”的身份继续参与,而不是让这种演变顺其自然.

3. 一个共同的未来愿景,指导家庭和企业. 共同愿景考虑的是在设定未来愿景时,如何平衡家庭期望与企业需求. Balancing the capabilities of the business and the priorities of the family the parallel planning process helps to set a sustainable vision for the future of the business and the family. 进一步, 这个过程考察了凯时k66在线首页所有权将如何提供战略优势,以帮助企业实现这一愿景.

4. Formulating long-term plans to guide both the family and the business provides both the means to achieve success and the metrics to evaluate accomplishment of goals. 并行规划过程需要承诺进行持续的对话, 记录决策和衡量结果,以确定目标是否实现. 虽然这看起来工作量很大, 随着时间的推移,它会变成第二天性, 这个过程本身有助于增强企业和家族的实力.

Developing a family business continuity plan that is simultaneously focused on critical factors of success for both the family and the business requires more than just an assessment of strengths, 弱点, 特定行业中特定组织面临的机遇和威胁. 它回答了为什么我们家族拥有这家公司以及为什么我们应该继续拥有这家公司的基本问题? 答案可能包括创始人的遗产, 但必须远远超越企业的起源,到接受所有权的共同责任. When family values are clarified and can be identified in the values of ownership they produce actionable business values that result in both psychological and financial returns.

The need to choose between “business-first” and “family-first” becomes irrelevant with the realization that assuring the success of the business now supports the continued well being of the family for generations to come. Formulating a business strategy that supports the current and future welfare of the family assures management and shareholder alignment for generations — such that these will survive economic downturns, 创造创新,发展一个进取成功的家庭. 最终,成功的战略必须为成功的家庭和企业提供支持.